Within a few weeks disciples began to join themselves to him; the condition was that they should dispose of all their possessions. Innocent III. Francis was elected and made a promise of obedience to the pope, and the others promised obedience to Francis.
This formal inauguration of the institute was in or as seems more probable The key-note of the movement was the imitation elbe rustic 48 single sink vanity the public life of Christ, especially the poverty of Christ.
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Francis and his disciples were to aim at possessing nothing, absolutely nothing, so far as was compatible with life; they were to earn their bread from day to day by the work of their hands, and only when they could not do so were they to beg; they were to make no provision for the morrow, lay by no store, accumulate no capital, possess no land; their clothes should be the poorest and their dwellings the meanest; they were forbidden to receive or to handle money.
On the other hand they were bound only to the fast observed in those days by pious Christians, and were allowed to eat meat—the rule said they should eat whatever was set before them; no austerities were imposed, beyond those inseparable from the manner of life they lived.
Thus the institute in its original conception was quite different from the monastic institute, Benedictine or Canon Regular. It was a confraternity rather than an order, and there was no formal novitiate, no organization.
But the number of brothers increased with extraordinary rapidity, and the field of work soon extended itself beyond the neighbourhood of Assisi and even beyond Umbria—within three or four years there were settlements in Perugia, Cortona, Pisa, Florence and elsewhere, and missions to the Saracens and Moors were attempted by Francis himself.
About Franciscan missions set out for Germany, France, Spain, Hungary and the Holy Land; and in a number of provinces were formed, each governed by a provincial minister. From an early date yearly meetings or chapters had been held at the Portiuncula, at first attended by the whole body of friars; but as the institute extended this became unworkable, and after the chapter consisted only of the officials, provincial ministers and others.
The two Gavottes following the Air have an earthy and we are only left with later copies.
Francis hurried back, halle berry dating life with him Elias of Cortona, the provincial minister of Syria, and immediately summoned an extraordinary general chapter September Before it met he had an interview on the situation with Cardinal Hugolino of Ostia afterwards Gregory IX.
By this bull the Friars Minor were constituted an order in the technical sense of the word. But there does seem to be evidence that Francis deplored tendencies towards a departure from the severe simplicity of life and from the strict observance of poverty which he considered the ground-idea of his institute.
In the final redaction of his Rule made in and in his Testament, made after it, he again clearly asserts his mind on these subjects, especially on poverty; and in the Testament he forbids any glosses in the interpretation of the Rule, declaring that it is to be taken simply as it stands. He issued a bull, Quo elongati, which declared that as the Testament had not received the sanction of the general chapter it was not binding on the order, and also allowed trustees to hold and administer money for the order.
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Under Elias the order entered on a period of extraordinary extension and prosperity: the number of friars in all parts of the world increased wonderfully, new provinces were formed, new missions to the heathen organized, the Franciscans entered the universities and vied with the Dominicans as teachers of theology and canon law, and as a body they became influential in church and state.
And so a widespread movement against his government arose, the backbone of which was the university element at Paris and Oxford, and at a dramatic scene in a chapter held in the presence of Gregory IX.
Elias was deposed The Zealots were few in number but of great consequence from the fact that to them belonged most of the first disciples and the most intimate companions of St Francis. They had been grievously persecuted under Elias—Br.
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Leo and others fb partnersuche been scourged, several had been imprisoned, one while trying to escape was accidentally killed, and Br. At the other extreme was a party of relaxation, that abandoned any serious effort to practise Franciscan poverty and simplicity of life. Between these two stood the great middle party of moderates, who desired indeed that the Franciscans should be really poor and simple in their manner of life, and really pious, but on the other hand approved of the development of the Order on the lines of other orders, of the acquisition of influence, of the cultivation of theology and other sciences, and of the frequenting of the universities.
While, early in the twelfth century, Germany was still engaged in freeing herself from monastic asceticism, and England was being remodelled by the Normans, French singers were composing the first national chansons, the lyric of the troubadours was flourishing in Prov- ence, and the Poema del Cid had taken shape in Spain. The revival of German poetry—now known as Middle High German'-—was late in setting in, but when it did come, it advanced with all the more rapidity.
Cuthbert The moderate party was by far the largest, and embraced nearly all the friars of France, England and Germany. Further relaxations of the law of poverty, however, caused a reaction, and John of Parma, one of the Zealots, became minister-general, Under him the more extreme of the Zealots took up and exaggerated the theories of the Eternal Gospel of the Calabrian Cistercian abbot Joachim of Fiore Floris ; some of their writings were condemned as heretical, and John of Parma, who was implicated in these apocalyptic tendencies, had to resign.
He was succeeded by St Bonaventuraone of the best type of the middle party. He was a man of high character, a theologian, a mystic, a holy man and a strong ruler.
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He set himself with determination to effect a working compromise, and proceeded with firmness against the extremists on both sides. The question thus posed came before the Council of Vienne,and was determined, on the whole, decidedly in favour of the stricter view.
Some of the French Zealots were not satisfied and formed a semi-schismatical body in Provence; twenty-five of them were tried before the Inquisition, and four were burned alive at Marseilles as obstinate heretics, After this the schism in the Order subsided.
But the disintegrating forces produced by the Great Schism and by the other disorders of the 14th century caused among the Franciscans the same relaxations and corruptions, and also the same reactions and reform movements, as among the other orders. The chief of these reforms was that of the Observants, which began at Foligno about The Observant reform spread widely throughout Italy and into France, Spain and Germany.
The great promoters of the movement were St Bernardine of Siena and St John Capistran. The council of Constance,allowed the French Observant friaries to be ruled by a vicar of their own, under the minister-general, and the same privilege was soon accorded to other countries.
By the end of the middle ages the Observants had some houses divided into 50 provinces. After many attempts had been made to bring about a working union among the many observances, in Leo X. At this time a great number of the Conventuals went over to the Observants, who have ever since been by far the more numerous and influential branch of the order.
The Capuchins q. Finally Leo XIII. Many of the Tertiaries live a fully monastic life in community under the usual vows, and are formed into Congregations of Regular Tertiaries, both men and women.
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They have been and are still very numerous, and give themselves up to education, to the care of the sick and of orphans and to good works of all kinds. Always recruited in large measure from among the poor, they have ever been the order of the poor, and in their preaching and missions and ministrations they have ever laid themselves out to meet the needs of the poor.
Another great work of the Franciscans throughout the whole course of their history has been their missions to the Mahommedans, both in western Asia and in North Africa, and to the heathens in China, Japan and India, and North and South America; a great number of the friars were martyred.
Many of these missions exist to this day.
In the Universities, too, the Franciscans made themselves felt alongside of the Dominicans, and created a rival school of theology, wherein, as contrasted with the Aristotelianism of the Dominican school, the Platonism of the early Christian doctors has been flirten mit krebsmann. The Franciscans came to England in and immediately made foundations in Canterbury, London and Oxford; by the middle of the century there were fifty elbe rustic 48 single sink vanity and over friars in England; at the Dissolution there were some 66 Elbe rustic 48 single sink vanity friaries, whereof some six belonged to the Observants for list see Catholic Dictionary and F.
The English province was one of the most remarkable in the order, especially in intellectual achievement; it produced Friar Roger Bacon, and, with the single exception of St Bonaventure, all the greatest doctors of the Franciscan theological school—Alexander Hales, Duns Scotus and Occam. The Franciscans have always been the most numerous by far of the religious orders; it is estimated that about the period of the Reformation the Friars Minor must have numbered nearlyAt the present day the statistics are roughly including lay-brothers : Observants, 15, Conventuals, ; to these should be added Capuchins, making the total number of Franciscan friars about 26, There are various houses of Observants and Capuchins in England and Ireland; and the old Irish Conventuals survived the penal times and still exist.
There have been four Franciscan popes: Nicholas IV. The story is also told by Helyot, Hist.
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Abridgments, with references to recent literature, will be found in Max Heimbucher, Orden und Kongregationeni. Ehrle in Archiv für Litteratur- und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters and Zeitschrift für Katholische Theologie, deserve special mention.
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Fuller information on the English Franciscans will be found in A. The name of Franck has been given indiscriminately but improperly to painters of the school of Antwerp who belong to the families of Francken q.
One artist truly entitled to be called Franck is Gabriel, who entered the gild of Antwerp inbecame its president in and died in But his works cannot now be traced. He at once obtained the first prize for piano, transposing a fugue at sight to the astonishment of the professors, for he was only fifteen. He won the prize for the organ inafter which he settled down in the French capital as teacher of the piano.
His earliest compositions date from this period, and include four trios for piano and strings, besides several piano pieces.