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Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer Institut für Zeitgeschichte, University of Vienna, Wien, Austria CONTACT Michaela Raggam-Blesch ta. ABSTRACT In this article, I highlight the daily life of three intermarried families in Vienna during the interwar years, the Nazi oppression and the immediate postwar period.
All three families led secular lives with varying ties to their Jewish and non-Jewish environment. After the Nazi takeover in Marchintermarried families along with the Jewish population experienced immediate discrimination and ostracism.
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This paper aims to outline how the Nazi takeover affected these families in their day-to-day encounters with non-Jews as well as their relationships with friends and family members. Thus, most of them experienced social isolation and a lacking sense of belonging, while others — mostly younger generations — sometimes found new forms of community.
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During the last years of the war their protection became more precarious interracial anschluss even trivial infractions against Nazi laws could lead to imprisonment and deportation. KEYWORDS: Vienna, Austria, Holocaust studies, microhistory, oral history, intermarried families, mixed marriages, Jewish-Christian relations, postwar Austria Introduction A few years after the end of the Second World War, Mathilde Hahn, 1 a woman of Catholic descent, took her own life.
After having stood by her Jewish husband and child through years of ostracization interracial anschluss hardship, enabling their survival during the Nazi regime, she simply could not go on any longer: According to her daughter, the degradation had worn her out.
He too had upheld the sole responsibility of protecting his Jewish wife during the Nazi years in Vienna, while being deprived of his position as a high school teacher due to his Jewish spouse. In the fall of he had been drafted to beste singlebörse kosten forced labour deployment in the Organization Todt OTwhere Baader — a veteran officer of the First World War — endured the demeaning treatment of his OT-commanders.
Since this article is based on ordinary people, there is little official documentation available to rely on, apart from family documents. Therefore, the main primary sources for this paper are oral history interviews conducted with the children of three families in the late s and early s 7 as well as a short autobiographic manuscript.
Whereas exact dates, the chronology of persecution measures and other determinants of the historical context can be interracial anschluss through other sources, oral history interviews and testimonies are particularly valuable sources for exploring coping strategies as well as aspects of identity and belonging. The reconstruction of events of the past from the perspective of the present sometimes allows sensitive topics that had been difficult to communicate in earlier years to emerge with grater candour in later testimonies, as Christopher Browning has shown.
Autobiographical sources and oral history interviews reveal insight into individual survival strategies and represent an important corrective to the sources produced by the Nazi state authorities.
They offer the chance interracial anschluss discover small acts of resistance or self-assertion that were not reflected in the sources created by the perpetrators. Victims thereby cease to appear as an anonymous collective and their agency and strategies of survival become visible. Tent — the fate interracial anschluss intermarried families during the Nazi regime gained increasing attention. This article aims to outline how the Nazi takeover affected these families in their day-to-day encounters with non-Jews as well as their relationships with friends and family members.
Political Turmoil and Pervasive Antisemitism: The Interwar Years in Vienna, — The three Jewish protagonists that are at the focus of this paper stemmed from families that had moved to Vienna at the beginning of the twentieth century.
While some of them came from more observant backgrounds, they all had somewhat distanced themselves from religion before they chose to marry a non-Jewish partner.
Cecilia Adler, born inwas the eldest daughter of ten siblings of a Moravian Jewish family that moved to Vienna around After the early death of her father, a tailor, Cecilia helped her mother raise her younger siblings.
Later on, she caught up with her education, studied for partnersuche bauernzeitung final exams in evening classes and became a university student in the s.
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During these years, the Vienna University was a hotbed for antisemitism. He became a teacher at a Gymnasium high school instead. Their son Gerhard, born inwas baptized after birth, yet grew up in a secular family with a strong socialist identity.
While they always had a Christmas tree, Gerhard and his mother Cecilia also regularly attended interracial anschluss celebrations at the Adler family home during the Jewish holidays. The Baaders, as Social Democrats, were able to get an apartment in one interracial anschluss the new community buildings of the ground-breaking Red Vienna public housing projects. However, since their building was located in the bourgeois district of Hietzing, they hardly had any close contact with people in the neighbourhood — apart from an occasional playmate of Gerhard, who lived in the same building.
They mostly socialized with other Social Democrats, who usually did not live karlsruhe single events the area. While some of them might have been of Jewish descent, Gerhard Baader as a child perceived their circle of friends mainly as non-Jewish. The political changes in the wake of Austrofascism and the prohibition of the Social Democratic party in already affected the Baader family in the years leading up to the Nazi takeover in In the s he was also enrolled at the Vienna University as a law student.
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Due to its high numbers of Jewish students, the faculties of law and medicine were particularly targeted during antisemitic riots. Even after his marriage to the Catholic Mathilde Ruttner, 31 he maintained a strong Jewish and Zionist identity, which was somewhat exceptional among singlebörse saar families.
Their daughter Judith 32 was born in The family only had Jewish friends and Judith also joined the Zionist sports club Hakoah as a interracial anschluss of the swimming team.
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After getting his textile license he started his own wholesale business in yarn and fabrics and got married to the Catholic Mimi Löw. His widowed mother, however, never accepted her Catholic daughter-in-law, even though Mimi converted to Judaism prior to the wedding. As a result, Moritz Freiberger distanced himself from his Jewish roots and the family was rarely invited to Jewish family celebrations. This was not an unusual occurrence.
In fact, most intermarried families faced reservations or even ostracism from non-Jewish as well as from Interracial anschluss family members. While receiving the obligatory religious education at school, she never attended a synagogue service together with her parents. Instead, the family celebrated Christmas, while the Jewish holidays were not kept.
At this moment, it was clear, even to the teenage girl Lotte that something bad was about to happen, even though at this point nobody could really have fully anticipated the extent of what was about to take shape. While anti—Jewish measures had progressed in Germany over the course of five years, they were implemented in Austria overnight.
Oskar Baader was discharged from his position as a high school teacher because of interracial anschluss marriage to a Jewish woman. At the same time, he was compelled by interracial anschluss members to get a divorce. His refusal to do so marked the beginning of the social isolation the family found itself in during the years to come.
Moritz Freiberger, however, got support from interracial anschluss unexpected source: Two of his business colleagues — illegal members of the Nazi party prior to the Anschluss — used their newly gained power to intervene on his behalf in Berlin.
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They succeeded in getting him permission to continue his business as a former officer of World War One — something that rarely interracial anschluss an impact in Austria during this time. Nevertheless, in the wake of the November pogrom, permissions of this kind lost their bearing. In fact, the Austrian Nazis in the Vienna municipality were eager to get a hold of apartments in the popular community buildings and expelled all Jewish tenants by the end of The Baader family thereafter found an apartment in the second district Leopoldstadt in a building that later became a Judenhaus.
They first moved to Moritz Freibergers sister Helene, who lived in an apartment in Grünentorgasse together with her daughter Elise and another Jewish sub-tenant.
There they had to change apartments another two times. Lotte Freiberger, whose best friends were non-Jews, remembers interracial anschluss how these girls suddenly made a point of ignoring her. She was subsequently excluded from high school and started taking occupational classes at the Jewish community, where she not only learned how to sew gloves, but also found new friends who were of similar background.
There she also met Judith Hahn, who was among the younger youths gathering there.