However, two dilemmas about this definition remain unresolved: 1 A strict application of usefulness is difficult to apply to artistic works: who decides what artwork ferienwohnung singler herbolzheim useful, and how it is useful?
To address these dilemmas, this paper proposes a spreading activation model of creativity SAMOCa model built on a brain-architecture-inspired vast interconnected network of nodes, each node representing information, and assigned meanings through interaction with the environment. A node activated by attention spreads through the network through previously linked nodes.
Nodes that are well connected activate each other easily, while those that are weakly connected do not. Net total activation corresponds to positive affect e.
SAMOC also predicts that creativity will be optimized at an intermediate, not extreme, level of novelty. Too much activation will occur with the activation of preexisting ideas hence reproduction rather than creativityand too much novelty will not produce spread of activation.
The two functions spreading activation and the novelty curve are superposed to demonstrate this optimal novelty hypothesis. Early single taken meme blank of the hypothesis comes from the data that some great works of art were critically rejected at premiers suggesting excessive noveltybut after sufficient repetition and therefore linking became suitably associated and commenced generating activation.
The hypothesis has important implications for future empirical research programs on creativity, and for the definition of creativity itself.
Introduction Creativity is a process that, from Western perspectives in particular, leads to the production of a novel, useful idea or product Runco and Jaeger, and is distinct from reproduction or non-production. It can be broadly conceptualized as consisting of four components: 1 ability to create single frauen schleiz, 2 intentionality to create3 a context in which the creativity occurs, and 4 a product is generated that is novel and useful Walia, ; see also Amabile and Pratt, Problem solving frequently occupies creativity research investigations.
Problem solving that requires a creative solution is quite broad and can be classified as well-defined and as ill-defined Wu et al. Well-defined problems have clearly stated goals, such as solving a complicated mathematical equation in a new way or building a bridge over a very long stretch of water. As we shall see, defining the process of solving ill-defined problems and assessing them according to the criteria of usefulness and novelty raise questions that are yet to be resolved. One of the reasons for the impasse stems from the need for testable theory.
This paper, therefore, single taken meme blank on existing models that make explicit, testable predictions about artistic creativity and aim to explain all creativity for the case of ill-defined problems, with the main focus of this paper on the arts, and honing in on examples from music practice and scholarship in particular. Furthermore, rather than building a model around data on creativity, a general model of mental processing is proposed, building on the work of Martindale and Gabora in particular Martindale,; Gabora, ; Vartanian et al.
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This model will be applied to explain data and build hypotheses about creativity. The paper commences by laying out the connectionist framework from which a spreading activation model is presented. Then, creativity will be modeled, as will aesthetic experience, since the two have important cognitive overlaps that will assist in building a hypothesis.
Once these phenomena are modeled, attention will be turned to resolving the dilemmas of novelty and usefulness.
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The paper then presents evidence for the model and the adequacy of the revised definition. Spreading Activation Model Connectionist frameworks consist of two simple components: nodes and links.
For the purpose of the present discussion, a simple piece of information will be an object e. The interconnection of these nodes is achieved by the second component, referred to as a weight or link, analogous to neurophysiological synapses. They link nodes together to different degrees. The linking process takes place through two flirten wie ein profi mechanisms—temporal contiguity and feature similarity.
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As a simple example, a bar of music in a familiar piece might be represented by one node, which then primes the next bar, and if the next bar is heard, the representation of that bar becomes activated that is, with additional activation. Figure 1 provides an example of a network where three extracts of music are represented. FIGURE 1 Figure 1. Illustration of veridical chaining, showing music fragments rhythmically simplified and transposed to C major parsed into nodes shown as ovals and combined through a chaining process.
That is, when the first arrow, cued by the name of the piece of music, activates its target node, the arrow exiting that node primes the next node until the current node has played, and so on.
Thick oval nodes indicate those that have been reused in the examples shown. Furthermore, when a node is activated, nodes to which it has been previously paired will themselves be primed i.
The method of transmission is not of particular concern here as the current application is conceptual rather than biological or mathematical but for further information, see Smolensky, The model presented here necessitates considerable simplification.
These fundamental building blocks of perception are referred to in some network models of memory as microfeatures Churchland, ; Ranjan and Gabora, single taken meme blank can also be represented as a more detailed part of the network in the model proposed here but has been omitted for ease of visualizing.
The principle of network temperature will also be put aside in the present account.
With this spreading activation model, various mental organization phenomena can be illustrated. This collection of related concepts can be illustrated in a network as a number of individual nodes that are strongly linked, using a single single taken meme blank combination of nodes, as in Figure 2 where nodes are shown as small circles in the mental networks of three hypothetical people persons i, ii, and iii over two points in time time A and time B.
This form of illustration is based on graph theory, used to understand complex, dynamic, adaptive systems Gros, Wheels, doors, boot, steering wheel, bumper bar, and engine will prime the general mental representation of a car, another group of julien bam eltern kennenlernen but of a single, single taken meme blank color in Figure 2 to those represented by the concept of a bird.
The two clusters of features are each related to themselves, but distinct from the other bird and carand so the links between the concept of a bird and a car are weak. And so in Figure 2they will occupy two color clusters that are not directly adjacent to one another.
However, if a bird and a car are experienced according to one or more of the linking principles, the connections will adjust. For example, the dark blue nodes in the middle of the illustrated network may represent the concept of car, and the gray nodes at the top left represent the concept of bird.
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Frequent temporal contiguity of the two concepts can create and increase the direct link strength between the two clusters of nodes indicated by the line joining the dark blue and gray node clusters in Figure 2iA. This basic architecture will be used to develop a spreading activation model of creativity SAMOC.
FIGURE 2 Figure 2.
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Network representations for three people at two points in time one time point per columnillustrating the spreading activation model of creativity SAMOC.
Over time, the repeated thought or exposure to the new combination strengthens the link between the node clusters time point B. The new link can be formed through an intermediate node, or directly between the node clusters the latter shown in the illustration for simplicity.
The network for person ii indicates that this person only shares a small number of concepts that person i has, and so is unable to process the creative, new link achieved by person i. At time B person ii has had no noticeable change in their network, and so will not experience additional activation as a result of being exposed to the newly combined ideas, leading to a non-positive affect experience.
Person iii on the other hand has considerable overlap in mental representations with person i and so is also able to form a connection between the newly combined clusters orange and dark greenwith the newly forming links appearing at time point B, mirroring that experience by person i at time point A, and leading to additional activation which generates positive affect pleasure.
The experience for person i and person iii is considered creative because previously unlinked nodes have been combined for the first time and generate positive affect. Furthermore, the existing pathways prior to their being combined was relatively distant in terms of the number single taken meme blank nodes that needed to be traversed, and the net, effective link strength.
Hence, the greater the separation between nodes or node clusters in terms of intermediate nodes and low net link strength, the greater the perception of novelty. There are of course several pathways through which one node can be connected to another distant node in the network, and this is characteristic of the complex dynamic creative system being proposed.
Spreading activation models have been promising in their capacity to replicate human behaviors, such as forgetting and confusing, as well as remembering. Furthermore, a good deal of data support a spreading activation explanation of creativity Langley and Jones, ; Martindale, ; Schooler, ; Friedman et al.
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